Willet
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
 
ITIS Species Code:   176638         NatureServ Element Code:   ABNNF02010
 
Taxa: 
Order: 
Family: 
Aves
Charadriiformes
Scolopacidae
NatureServe Global Rank: 
NatureServe State (NC) Rank: 
 
G5
S4B,S4N
 
Federal Status: 
NC State Status: 
 
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PARTNERS IN FLIGHT PRIORITY SCORES:
Southern Blue Ridge:  n/a Southern Piedmont:  n/a South Atl. Coastal Plain:  n/a
 
HEXAGONAL KNOWN RANGE:PREDICTED DISTRIBUTION:
 
SUMMARY OF STATEWIDE PREDICTED DISTRIBUTION:
 
Land Unit

US Fish & Wildlife Service
US Forest Service
US National Park Service
US Department of Defense
NC State Parks
NC University System
NC Wildlife Res. Com.
NC Forest Service
NC Div. of Coastal Mgmt.
Local Governments
Non-Governmental Org.
Other Public Lands
Private Lands

GAP Status 1-2
All Protected Lands
Statewide
 
Hectares

19,771.83
238.32
9,524.61
9,851.49
1,764.45
0.00
4,406.94
0.00
1,644.57
2.61
2,066.31
35.19
64,930.68

33,865.74
48,740.49
114,237.00
 
Acres

48,857.25
588.90
23,535.82
24,343.56
4,360.05
0.00
10,889.78
0.00
4,063.82
6.45
5,105.96
86.96
160,447.17

83,684.05
120,440.35
282,285.72
% of Dist. on
Prot. Lands

40.6 %
0.5 %
18.4 %
20.2 %
3.6 %
0.0 %
9.0 %
0.0 %
3.4 %
4.2 %
4.2 %
< 0.1 %
0.0 %

69.5 %
-----   
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% of Dist. on
All Lands

17.3 %
0.2 %
8.3 %
8.6 %
1.5 %
0.0 %
3.9 %
0.0 %
1.4 %
< 0.1 %
1.8 %
< 0.1 %
56.8 %

29.6 %
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HABITAT DESCRIPTION:
Common throughout the coastal area (Fussell 1994) and barrier islands (Fussell and Lyons 1990).

Nests in salt marshes, especially those that are periodically mowed or burned, or where grazing by geese keeps the vegetation short (Johnsgard 1981). Often forages on sandy ocean beaches, especially after breeding season (Fussell 1994).

Nests on the ground, either among dense grasses or out in the open (Kaufman 1996). Usually spaced at least 200 feet from other nesting pairs, but can be as close as 40 feet (Johnsgard 1981).

NATURE SERVE GLOBAL HABITAT COMMENTS:

Marshes, tidal mudflats, beaches, lake margins, mangroves, tidal channels, river mouths, coastal lagoons, sandy or rocky shores, and, less frequently, open grassland (AOU 1983, Stiles and Skutch 1989). Nests along marshy lake margins in western North America, salt marshes in eastern North America. Nests on the ground in open places, coastal marshes, beaches, or islands; and inland in wet grassland by lakes, or short grass or bare ground by water.

 
MODELING DESCRIPTION:
Occupied Landcover Map Units:
Code NameDescription NC Natural Heritage Program Equivalent
378 Ocean Beaches Open beach sand. Upper Beach
3 Tidal Marsh Fresh and brackish tidal marshes, including cord grass, wild rice, sawgrass and needlerush alliances. Brackish Marsh, Interdune pond, Maritime wet grassland
375 Hypersaline coastal salt flats Tidal flats within salt marshes, including saltmeadow cordgrass or sea-purslane dominated alliances. Salt Marsh
372 Interdune Herbaceous Wetlands Dune swales with permanently flooded to intermittently exposed hydrology. Species composition depends on salinity and can include cut grass, spike-rush, mosquito fern, and hornwort. Interdune Pond, Maritime Wet Grasslands
371 Maritime Grasslands Dune grass community consisting of sea oats and beach grasses. Dune grass, Maritime dry grassland
380 Coastal Plain Fresh Water Emergent Emergent vegetation in fresh water seepage bogs, ponds and riverbeds of the coastal plain. Includes alliances dominated by sedges, eelgrass, as well as cane found in unforested cane-brakes. Small Depression Pond, Sandhill Seep, Floodplain Pool, Unforested Floodplain Canebrake, Riverscour Prairies, Vernal Pools
8 Open water Open water without aquatic vegetation. No equivalent
View Entire Landcover Legend
 
Additional Spatial Constraints:
Exclude all area outside of known range.
Exclude all water greater than 50 meters from land.
 
CITATIONS:
Banks, R. C., and M. R. Browning. 1995. Comments on the status of revived old names for some North American birds. Auk 112:633-648.

Bent, A.C. 1929. Life histories of North American shore birds. Part II. U.S. National Museum Bulletin No. 146. Washington, D.C.

Fussell, J. III and M. Lyons. 1990. Birds of the Outer Banks [pamphlet]. Eastern National Parks and Monument Association Coastal Wildlife Refuge Society.

Rompre, G., and R. McNeil. 1994. Seasonal changes in day and night foraging of willets in northeastern Venezuela. Condor 96:734-738.

Fussell, J.O. III. 1994. A birderís guide to coastal North Carolina. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press.

Kaufman K. 1996. Lives of North American Birds. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Robert, M., R. McNeil, and A. Leduc. 1989. Conditions and significance of night feeding in shorebirds and other water birds in a tropical lagoon. Auk 106:94-101.

Harrison, C. 1978. A field guide to the nests, eggs and nestlings of North American birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

Terres, J.K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers, and snipes of the world. Univ. Nebraska Press, Lincoln. 493 pp.

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

Raffaele, H.A. 1983. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Fondo Educativo Interamericano, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 255 pp.

Hayman, P., J. Marchant, and T. Prater. 1986. Shorebirds:an identification guide to the waders of the world. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 412 pp.

Hilty, S.L., and W.L. Brown. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 836 pp.

Morrison, R. I. G., and R. K. Ross. 1989. Atlas of Nearctic shorebirds on the coast of South America. Vols. 1 and 2. Canadian Wildl. Serv. Spec. Publ. 325 pp.

Stiles, F.G., and A.F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Comstock Publ. Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 511 pp.

10 March 2005
 
This data was compiled and/or developed by the North Carolina GAP Analysis Project.

For more information please contact them at:
NC-GAP Analysis Project
Dept. of Zoology, NCSU
Campus Box 7617
Raleigh, NC 27695-7617
(919) 513-2853
www.basic.ncsu.edu/ncgap