|US Fish & Wildlife Service|
|US Forest Service|
|US National Park Service
|US Department of Defense|
|NC State Parks|
NC University System|
|NC Wildlife Res. Com.|
|NC Forest Service|
NC Div. of Coastal Mgmt.|
Other Public Lands|
|GAP Status 1-2
|All Protected Lands|
| 42,944.85 |
| 84,477.15 |
| 2,625.75 |
| 16,806.51 |
| 7,339.41 |
| 1,467.45 |
| 7,082.46 |
| 99.99 |
| 101,193.03 |
| 106,119.01 |
| 208,747.54 |
| 6,488.37 |
| 41,529.78 |
| 18,136.07 |
| 3,626.15 |
| 17,501.14 |
| 247.08 |
| 250,053.37 |
|% of Dist. on|
| 16.5 %|
| < 0.1 %|
| 6.4 %|
| 2.8 %|
| 2.7 %|
| < 0.1 %|
< 0.1 %|
|% of Dist. on|
| 4.8 %|
| < 0.1 %|
| 1.9 %|
| 0.8 %|
| < 0.1 %|
| < 0.1 %|
Fairly common to rare from the coast to the eastern piedmont, as well as at the Pee Dee Refuge (Anson County), Uwharrie National Forest (Montgomery County), in northern Wake County and west Northampton County (Potter et al. 1980).|
In North Carolina, restricted to southern pine forests. Open, park like pine savanna with little hardwood understory is
preferred, such as that maintained by fire. Fire during the growing season is recognized as a key factor in sustaining habitat (SNN 1990). The species' dependence on specific habitats cannot be overemphasized, nor can its need for old trees.
A strong preference for living pines as foraging substrate has been demonstrated, but their most striking habitat
requirement is that of mature living pines for cavity excavation. Trees infected with red heart fungus are often selected, presumably because excavation is easier if the heartwood is rotten, and these are usually the oldest trees in the forest. Longleaf cavity trees usually average around 100 yrs. of age, but, in the NC Sandhills, where older trees exist , many cavity
trees are more than 200 years old. Similar ages have been reported for shortleaf and pond pine, whereas cavity trees average about 20 yrs. younger in the faster growing slash and loblolly pines. They have consistently shown a preference for the oldest trees available in both foraging and cavity excavation, but because old-growth pine is so uncommon in the
south today, it has not been possible to determine the ideal age of trees or habitat. Digs nest hole in large living pines afflicted with red-heart fungus (PHELLINUS PINI) disease (Hooper et al. 1991); also may use fast-growing longleaf pines with sound heartwood. Nests mostly 3-12 m above ground. Cavity trees tend to be aggregated. Old trees (more than 95
years for longleaf pine and more than 75 years for other species) are most suitable for nesting (Hooper 1988).
NATURE SERVE GLOBAL HABITAT COMMENTS:
Open mature pine woodland, rarely in deciduous woodland near pine or in mixed woodland. However, in Kentucky, basal area of active colonies was 48% pine and 52% nonpine (chiefly oak);
hardwood abundance (88% of total stems) was much higher than recorded in habitat elsewhere (Kalisz and Boettcher 1991). Generally prefers open parklike habitat such as that maintained by fire. Primary habitat longleaf pine, also shortleaf and loblolly pine in many areas. Fire during the growing season is recognized as a key factor in sustaining habitat (SNN
1990). Encroachment of hardwood midstory negatively impacts habitat. In eastern Texas, loss of forest habitat and fragmentation negatively affected woodpecker group size in small populations that had relatively isolated clusters of cavity trees, apparently by causing an insufficiency of foraging habitat and dispersal-demographic problems (Conner and Rudolph
1991, which see for contrasting results from another study).
NATURE SERVE STATE HABITAT COMMENTS:
Restricted to southern pine forests. The largest populations are found in longleaf pine, although loblolly pine, short leaf pine, pond pine, slash pine, and rarely Virginia pine and pitch pine are also used. Open, park like pine savanna with little
hardwood understory is preferred. A strong preference for living pines as foraging substrate has been demonstrated, but their most striking habitat requirement is that of mature living pines for cavity excavation. Trees infected with red heart fungus are often selected, presumably because excavation is easier if the heartwood is rotten, and these are usually the
oldest trees in the forest. Longleaf cavity trees usually average around 100 yrs. of age. but where even older trees exist in the NC Sandhills, many cavity trees are more than 200 years old. Similar ages have been reported for shortleaf and pond pine, whereas cavity trees average about 20 yrs. younger in the faster growing slash and loblolly pines. The species'
dependence on specific habitats cannot be overemphasized, nor can its need for old trees. They have consistently shown a preference for the oldest trees available in both foraging and cavity excavation, but because old-growth pine is so uncommon in the south today, it has not been possible to determine the ideal age of trees or habitat.
Digs nest hole in large living pines afflicted with red-heart fungus (PHELLINUS PINI) disease (Hooper et al. 1991); also may use fast-growing longleaf pines with sound heartwood. Nests mostly 3-12 m above ground. Cavity trees tend to be aggregated. Old trees (more than 95 years for longleaf pine and more than 75 years for other
species) are most suitable for nesting (Hooper 1988). Presence of red-heart is crucial to nesting habitat (SNN 1990). Cavities take several months or years to complete. In eastern Texas, bark beetles (54%), wind snap (30%), and fire (7%) were the major causes of cavity tree mortality; in Angelina National Forest, cavity enlargement by pileated woodpeckers
was a significant factor in cavity loss for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Conner et al. 1991). In Texas, preferentially selected the oldest trees for cavity excavation; the current average age of cavity trees (85-130 years) may not provide optimum conditions (optimum may be represented by older trees that are not yet available) (Rudolph and Conner 1991);
older/larger trees allow placement of cavities at a greater height, which reduces predation, fire damage, and girdling damage by woodpeckers.
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