Golden-winged warbler
Vermivora chrysoptera
ITIS Species Code:   178852         NatureServ Element Code:   ABPBX01030
NatureServe Global Rank: 
NatureServe State (NC) Rank: 
Federal Status: 
NC State Status: 
Southern Blue Ridge:  28 Southern Piedmont:  30 South Atl. Coastal Plain:  n/a
Land Unit

US Fish & Wildlife Service
US Forest Service
US National Park Service
US Department of Defense
NC State Parks
NC University System
NC Wildlife Res. Com.
NC Forest Service
NC Div. of Coastal Mgmt.
Local Governments
Non-Governmental Org.
Other Public Lands
Private Lands

GAP Status 1-2
All Protected Lands




% of Dist. on
Prot. Lands

0.0 %
71.4 %
< 0.1 %
20.2 %
2.9 %
< 0.1 %
2.0 %
1.7 %
0.0 %
0.9 %
0.9 %
< 0.1 %
0.0 %

28.9 %
% of Dist. on
All Lands

0.0 %
4.3 %
< 0.1 %
1.2 %
0.2 %
< 0.1 %
0.1 %
0.1 %
0.0 %
< 0.1 %
< 0.1 %
< 0.1 %
94.0 %

1.7 %
Dunn and Garrett (1997) depict a breeding range throughout the Appalachian mountains in N.C. Potter et al (1980) describe it as a resident in the mountains of southwestern section of the state.

Golden-wings are habitat specialist. Dunn and Garrett (1997) state they prefer the 'early stage of successional growth.' Curson (1994) lists 'pastures that are reverting to woodland, in brushy fields, openings in deciduous woods and shrubby borders of streams.' Both Potter et al (1980) and Dunn and Garrett (1997) list powerline right-of-ways as breeding areas, but Dunn and Garrett go on to record 'wet fields with clumps of shrubs, swamp edges, and young stands of oak-hickory' as potential breeding sites.

Nests are located on or close to the ground, concealed by dead leaves, weeds, ferns, briars or tall grasses. (Curson et al 1994, Dunn and Garrett 1997, Ehrlich et al 1988, Hammel 1992, Potter et al 1980) Golden-wings forage low to middle levels, often gleaning leaves, twigs, and dead leaf clusters especially of deciduous shrubs and saplings. (Curson et al 1994, Dunn and Garrett 1997, Hammel 1992) Potter et al (1980) however states Golden-wings 'frequently feed very high in tall trees, foraging at the tips of branches . . .'


BREEDING: Deciduous woodland, usually in dry uplands or areas of thick undergrowth in swampy areas; woodland edge with low cover; hillside scrub; overgrown pastures; abandoned farmland; powerline right-of-ways; recently logged sites; bogs; forest openings; territories usually have patches of herbs and shrubs, sparse tree cover, and a wooded perimeter (Confer 1992). Habitat tracts of 10-15 ha can support several pairs and are preferred over both smaller and larger areas (Confer 1992). Habitat can be created through logging, burning, and intermittent farming (Confer 1992). Habitat is ephemeral and requires periodic disturbance to return it to favorable early successional conditions. Nests on or a little above ground, in grass tuft, fern or weed clump, or concealed in herbage at base of shrub, tree, ferns, briars, or goldenrod (Harrison 1978, Confer 1992). Often the clump includes a taller stem used for descent to the nest. Nests usually at the ecotone of a forest with a field or marsh, or in a small opening in a forest (Confer 1992).

Nested abundantly in the chestnut-sprout (CASTANEA DENTATA) forests of West Virginia following the spread of the chestnut blight (Hall 1983). Commonly nest in upland sites on abandoned farmland in early stages of succession (e.g., Confer and Knapp 1981), or occasionally in logged areas (e.g., Will 1986). In the Canadian shield in Ontario, they nest ' alder [ALNUS spp.] bogs, especially when a few taller species [of trees] are present' (Mills 1987). Several observers have mentioned nesting in powerline right-of-ways. In southern Michigan they nested in and around the edges of thickly wooded portions of tamarack (LARIX LARICINA) swamps as well as in small, brushy clearings (Will 1986). In northern Michigan, Will described their habitat as including dry fields overgrown with shrubs, and woodland clearings, as well as very wet areas that were recently logged and covered with felled trees and a homogenous cover of new saplings. Will suggested that, overall, they '...appeared to require proximal access to mature or second-growth woodlands as well as open areas in which there has been considerable invasion by brush, shrubs, and sapling trees.'

Vegetative characteristics of territories have been quantified for southern, central, and northern New York (Confer and Knapp 1981, Frech and Confer 1987). In southern New York and contiguous New Jersey, nesting takes place in the Ramapo Mountains (Confer and Knapp 1981, Skully, in press). In this rugged topography, territories occurred in marshes between rock outcrops often with a perimeter of alder surrounded by forest. In central and northern New York, territories usually were located on dry, upland sites of abandoned farmland but occasionally in wet sites. All territories had areas with dense herb growth without shrubs or trees. Herb growth of at least moderate density covered 60% or more of the ground, including the growth under woody plants. All territories had patches of dense shrubs which covered about half of each territory. Tree canopy covered less than 15% of the northern and central territories but up to 40% of the southern territories. Central and northern territories usually extended no more than 20 m into a forest, while southern territories frequently extended considerably further. In wetter sites sedges (CAREX spp.) were the dominant herb and alders were the dominant shrub. In upland sites a wide variety of herbs occurred while VIBURNUM spp., narrow-leaved meadowsweet (SPIREA ALBA), and dogwood (CORNUS spp.) were the dominant shrubs.

All New York territories had a similar vegetative pattern with patches of herbs and shrubs, a few trees scattered throughout, and a tree row or forest edge forming most of the perimeter (Confer and Knapp 1981, Frech and Confer 1987). In New York, abandoned farmland undergoing secondary succession has this distinctive pattern of vegetation for only about 10-20 years. Thus, golden-winged warblers at upland sites are restricted to a specific and brief stage of succession. Because of this restriction, Confer and Knapp (1981) suggested that this warbler was in some sense a habitat specialist. However, a species that can nest in chestnut-sprout forests in Virginia, tamarack bogs in Michigan, and alder swamps in Ontario clearly tolerates a wide range of conditions. It would be valuable to determine if nesting warblers require a specific plant profile but tolerate a wide range of plant species, or tolerate a wide range of both plant profile and plant species.

NON-BREEDING: In migration and winter in various open woodland habitats, pine-oak, and scrub, often in foothill regions (AOU 1983). Found in evergreen and semi-deciduous forest, particularly the canopy, gaps, or edges and in tall second growth (Stiles and Skutch 1989, DeGraaf and Rappole 1995, Howell and Webb 1995).

Occupied Landcover Map Units:
Code NameDescription NC Natural Heritage Program Equivalent
378 Ocean Beaches Open beach sand. Upper Beach
3 Tidal Marsh Fresh and brackish tidal marshes, including cord grass, wild rice, sawgrass and needlerush alliances. Brackish Marsh, Interdune pond, Maritime wet grassland
124 Maritime Scrubs and Tidal Shrublands Coastal shrubs including wax-myrtle, swamp rose, alder, yaupon, and greenbriar. Maritime Shrubs, Salt Shrub
375 Hypersaline coastal salt flats Tidal flats within salt marshes, including saltmeadow cordgrass or sea-purslane dominated alliances. Salt Marsh
372 Interdune Herbaceous Wetlands Dune swales with permanently flooded to intermittently exposed hydrology. Species composition depends on salinity and can include cut grass, spike-rush, mosquito fern, and hornwort. Interdune Pond, Maritime Wet Grasslands
371 Maritime Grasslands Dune grass community consisting of sea oats and beach grasses. Dune grass, Maritime dry grassland
75 Tidal Swamp Forest Swamp tupelo dominated forest with or without black tupelo and/or cypress trees. Restricted to the tidal zones in the coastal plain. May have inclusions of coastal red cedar woodlands. Tidal cypress - gum swamp
121 Maritime Pinelands Loblolly forests and woodlands of the outer coastal plain. Estuarine Fringe Loblolly Pine Forest
17 Maritime Forests and Hammocks Maritime forests and woodlands dominated by live or sand laurel oak. Estuarine Fringe forests dominated by loblolly pine. Coastal Fringe Evergreen Forest, Maritime Deciduous Forest, Maritime Deciduous Forest
126 Interdune Wooded Depression Swamp Includes swamps dominated by sweetbay and swampbay or dogwood dominated forests. Maritime Shrub Swamp, Maritime Swamp Forest
380 Coastal Plain Fresh Water Emergent Emergent vegetation in fresh water seepage bogs, ponds and riverbeds of the coastal plain. Includes alliances dominated by sedges, eelgrass, as well as cane found in unforested cane-brakes. Small Depression Pond, Sandhill Seep, Floodplain Pool, Unforested Floodplain Canebrake, Riverscour Prairies, Vernal Pools
173 Coastal Plain Riverbank Shrubs Shrub dominated riverbanks, commonly dominated by willows and/or alders. Sand and Mud Bar
50 Coastal Plain Mixed Bottomland Forests Includes forests dominated by a variety of hardwood species, including sweetgum, cottonwood, red maple. Coastal Plain Bottomland Hardwood (in part), Coastal Plain Levee Forest
49 Coastal Plain Oak Bottomland Forest Bottomland forests dominated by deciduous oak alliances. Oaks represented can include swamp chestnut, cherrybark, willow, and/or overcup oak. Inclusions of loblolly pine temporarily flooded forests occur in patches. Hydrology is temporarily to seasonally flooded. Coastal Plain Bottomland Hardwoods (in part) blackwater subtype, brownwater subtype
158 Coastal Plain Nonriverine Wet Flat Forests Loblolly pine - Atlantic white-cedar - red maple - swamp tupelo saturated forests as well as forests dominated by loblolly, sweetgum, and red maple in non-riverine flats. Non-riverine Wet Hardwood Forest
41 Peatland Atlantic White-Cedar Forest Dense stands of Atlantic white cedar with saturated hydrology. Can include swamp tupelo, red maple, and pond pines with a moderate shrub and herb layer. Peatland Atlantic White-Cedar Forest
15 Seepage and Streamhead Swamps Includes extensive peat flats in the coastal plain, dominated by swamp tupelo, maples, and Atlantic white cedar alliances. In the sandhills includes streamhead pond pine and bay forests alliances. Saturated hydrology. Bay Forest, Small Depression Pocosin, Streamhead Atlantic White Cedar Forest, Streamhead Pocosins
30 Cypress-Gum Floodplain Forests Swamps dominated by black or swamp tupelo with or without Taxodium. Seasonally to semi-permanently flooded hydrology. Cypress-Gum Swamps
78 Pond-Cypress - Gum Swamps, Savannas and Lakeshores Cypress dominated swamps and lakeshores. Can include bays dominated by pond cypress or shorelines of coastal plain lakes with a narrow band of cypress. Non-riverine Swamp Forest, Natural Lakeshores (in part)
385 Oak Bottomland Forest and Swamp Forest The swamp chestnut oak, cherrybark oak, shumard oak and sweetgum alliance is one representative. Other alliances are dominated by water, willow, and overcup oaks. Swamp forests can be dominated by sweetgum, red maple, and black gum being dominant. Loblolly can occur in combination with sweetgum and red maple, or with tulip poplar. Includes saturated and semi- to permanently flooded forests in the mountains. Piedmont/Mountain Bottomland Forest, Piedmont/Mountain Swamp Forest
63 Coastal Plain Mesic Hardwood Forests Beech dominated forests with white oak and northern red oak as possible co-dominants. Dry-mesic to mesic forests on slopes and small stream bottoms in the coastal plain. Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest, Basic Mesic Forests
138 Coastal Plain Dry to Dry-Mesic Oak Forests Oak dominated forests of the coastal plain. Includes white oak forests with water oak or northern red oak and hickories as co-dominants. Dry Mesic Oak Hickory Forest, Basic Oak Hickory Forest, Dry Oak Hickory Forest
87 Pocosin Woodlands and Shrublands Includes pond pine woodland, low pocosin and high pocosin shrub dominated areas. Canebrakes and bay forests may be present. Pond Pine Woodlands, Peatland Canebrake, Small Depression Pocosin
67 Wet Longleaf or Slash Pine Savanna Wet flatwoods and pine savannas, typically dominated by longleaf pines, but slash or pond pines may be the dominant pines. Wet Pine Flatwoods
97 Mesic Longleaf Pine Longleaf pine woodlands without a major scrub oak component. Slash or loblolly pines may be present as well. Mesic Pine Flatwoods
42 Xeric Longleaf Pine Sandhills including a range of longleaf pine density from predominantly wiregrass, scrub oak dominated to true longleaf pine woodland. This does not include mesic or saturated flatwood types. Xeric Sandhill Scrub, Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill, Coastal Fringe Sandhill
46 Xeric Oak - Pine Forests Mixed forest dominated by yellow pines with white or northern red oaks co-dominating. Pine Oak Heath
232 Xeric Pine-Hardwood Woodlands and Forests Mixed forest dominated by yellow pines with drier oaks including southern red, post, and chestnut oaks. Dry Oak Hickory Forest
238 Piedmont/Mountain Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Seasonally to permanently flooded areas with aquatic vegetation. Waterlily, pondweed, hydrilla smartweed are a few of the species that can occur. Piedmont/Mountain Semipermanent Impoundment (in part)
239 Piedmont/Mountain Emergent Vegetation Emergent vegetation of all wetland hydrologies. Sites would commonly support species such as tussock sedge, rushs, and cattail alliances. Rocky Bar and Shore (in part)
269 Floodplain Wet Shrublands Saturated shrublands of the Piedmont, includes buttonbush, swamp-loosestrife, decodon and alders. Piedmont/mountain Semipermanent Impoundment
230 Piedmont Mesic Forest American Beech - Red Oak - White Oak Forests. Mesic Mixed Hardwood
384 Piedmont/Mountain Mixed Bottomland Hardwood Forests Includes temporarily to seasonally forests dominated by hardwood species. Hardwoods include sweetgum, red maple, sycamore which co-occur in a mosaic of bottomland and levee positions. Includes alluvial hardwood forests in the mountains. Hemlock and white pine may occur as inclusions, but are generally mapped separately. Piedmont/Mountain Alluvial Forest, Piedmont/Mountain Levee Forest
383 Piedmont Mixed Successional Forest Generally loblolly mixed with successional hardwoods. Sweetgum, tulip poplar and red maple are common co-dominants in these successional forests. No equivalent
228 Piedmont Dry-Mesic Oak and Hardwood Forests Primarily oak dominated forests, white oak is often dominant, with co-dominants including . Also represented by sweetgum and tulip poplar dominated forests. Dry Mesic Oak Hickory Forest, Basic Oak Hickory Forest, Dry Oak Hickory Forest
222 Piedmont Dry-Mesic Pine Forests Loblolly dominated forests resulting from succession following clearing. This type occurs on all moisture regimes following disturbance with the exception of the extremely xeric sites. No equivalent
382 Dry Mesic Oak Pine Forests Mixed forests of the coastal plain and piedmont. Includes loblolly pine with white, southern red and/or post oak and loblolly with water oak. On basic sites of the piedmont, eastern red cedar may co-occur with post, black, and blackjack oaks. Dry Mesic Oak Hickory Forest, Xeric Hard Pan Forest, Chestnut Oak Forest, Dry Mesic Oak Hickory Forest, Dry Oak Hickory Forest
220 Piedmont Xeric Pine Forests Dry to xeric pine forests dominated by Virginia pine, shortleaf pine or Eastern Red Cedar. Pine Oak Heath
226 Piedmont Xeric Woodlands Generally post and blackjack oak dominated woodlands. White ash and pignut hickory can be found in combination with Eastern red cedar on glades. Xeric Hardpan Forest
20 Coniferous Regeneration Regenerating pine stands. Predominantly loblolly pine, but slash and longleaf stands occur as well. No equivalent
21 Coniferous Cultivated Plantation (natural / planted) Managed pine plantations, densely planted. Most planted stands are loblolly, but slash and longleaf occur as well. No equivalent
51 Deciduous Cultivated Plantation Planted deciduous trees. Includes sweetgum and sycamore plantations. No equivalent
180 Agricultural Crop Fields Farm fields used for row crops. No equivalent
205 Agricultural Pasture/Hay and Natural Herbaceous Farm fields used for pasture grass or hay production, as well as old fields dominated by native and exotic grasses. No equivalent
213 Barren; quarries, strip mines, and gravel pits Quarries, strip mines, or gravel pits. No equivalent
214 Barren; bare rock and sand Areas of bare rock, sand or clay. No equivalent
60 Sand Exposed sand, predominantly in the sandhills region where disturbance or the extreme site conditions prevent natural regeneration. No equivalent
202 Residential Urban Includes vegetation interspersed in residential areas. Includes lawns, mixed species woodlots, and horticultural shrubs. Vegetation accounts for between 20 - 70% of the cover. No equivalent
203 Urban Low-Intensity Developed Highly developed areas with vegetation accounting for < 20% of the cover. No equivalent
204 Urban High-Intensity Developed and Transportation Corridors Highly developed areas including infrastructure such as roads, railroads. Vegetation represents < 20% of the cover. No equivalent
8 Open water Open water without aquatic vegetation. No equivalent
517 Hemlock Floodplain Forest Alluvial forest with hemlock and/or white pine in mountains and western piedmont. Hydrology is generally temporarily to seasonally flooded. Canada Hemlock Forest
521 Spruce/Fir Forest High Elevation Frazer-Fir - Red Spruce, Red Spruce and Red-Spruce-Yellow Birch Forests. Tree densities included here include both woodland to forest density. Highly intermixed with Northern Hardwoods, Grassy Balds, and Shrub Balds. Red Spruce--Fraser Fir Forest, Fraser Fir Forest
523 Grassy Bald High Elevation grassy balds including Pennsylvania sedge, mountain oatgrass, as well as shrubby areas dominated by Alleghany and smooth blackberry. Grassy Bald
524 Shrub Bald Variable phenologies, predominantly evergreen balds with rhododendon and Mountain laurels. Deciduous shrubs including green alder and Alleghany and smooth blackberry are included as well. Red Oak - Chestnut Oak Woodlands may be included in cases where the density of the woodland species is low and the shrub component is dense. Heath Bald
527 Appalachian Hemlock Upland hemlock forests of the moutains region. Vary from side slopes to steep slope positions. Canada Hemlock Forest
528 Appalachian Xeric Pine Forest Pine forests and woodlands on xeric sites. A variety of pines, including Virginia, Shortleaf, Eastern White Pine, Table Mountain and Pitch pine. Often small areas of dense pine within a matrix of Xeric Oak-Pine Forests. Pine Oak Heath
533 Appalachian Swamp Forest Evergreen and deciduous forests with saturated hydrologies. This class may contain a variety of trees species, including hemlock - red maple, pitch pine, and white pine forests. Swamp Forest-Bog Complex, Southern Appalachian Bog, Southern Appalachian Fen
534 Appalachian Wet Shrubland/ Herbaceous Saturated shrubs and herbaceous vegetation. Often mapped as an inclusion in Appalachian Swamp Forest. Southern Appalachian Bog, Southern Appalachian Fen
535 Talus/Outcrops/Cliffs Includes seep talus slopes with sparce vegetation, as well as outcrops including, granitic outcrops. Some outcrops will have been mapped as barren rock. No equivalent
View Entire Landcover Legend
Additional Spatial Constraints:
Exclude all area outside of known range.
Limited to elevation range: 1000 - 5000 ft.
Limited to edge habitats including forest/field borders, shrublands and woodlands.
Confer, J.L., and K. Knapp. 1981. Golden-winged warblers and blue-winged warblers:the relative success of a habitat specialist and a habitat generalist. Auk 98:108-114.

Carter, M., G. Fenwick, C. Hunter, D. Pashley, D. Petit, J. Price, and J. Trapp. 1996. Watchlist 1996:For the future. Field Notes 50(3):238-240.

Bent, A.C. 1953. Life histories of North American wood warblers. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 203. Washington, D.C.

Ehrlich, P.R., D.S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in jeopardy:the imperiled and extinct birds of the United States and Canada, including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.

Hagan, J.M., III, and D.W. Johnston, editors. 1992. Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. xiii + 609 pp.

Hamel, P. B. 1992. The land manager's guide to the birds of the south. The Nature Conservancy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 367 pp + several appendices.

Hands, H.M., R.D. Drobney, and M.R. Ryan. 1989. Status of the golden-winged warbler in the northcentral United States. Missouri Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit Rep. 12 pp.

Sauer, J.R., and S. Droege. 1992. Geographical patterns in population trends of neotropical migrants in North America. Pages 26-42 in J.M. Hagan III and D.W. Johnston, editors. Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds. Smithsonian Institu

DeGraaf, R.M., and J.H. Rappole. 1995. Neotropical migratory birds:natural history, distribution, and population change. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.

Howell, S.N.G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Dunn, J.L., and K.L. Garrett. 1997. A field guide to warblers of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Hall, G.A. 1983. West Virginia birds:distribution and ecology. Spec. Publ. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 7, Pittsburgh. 180 pp.

Will, T. C. 1986. Behavioral ecology of species replacement:blue-winged and golden-winged warblers in Michigan. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Ph.D dissertation. 126 pp.

Harrison, C. 1978. A field guide to the nests, eggs and nestlings of North American birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

Griscom, L., and A. Sprunt, Jr. 1979. The warblers of America. Doubleday and Co., Garden City, New York. 302 pp.

Potter, E. F., J. F. Parnell, and R. P. Teulings. 1980. Birds of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 408 pp.

Terres, J.K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

Raffaele, H.A. 1983. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Fondo Educativo Interamericano, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 255 pp.

Harrison, H.H. 1984. Wood warblers' world. Simon and Schuster, New York. 335 pp.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Migratory Bird Management. 1987. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the United States:the 1987 list.

Frech, M.H., and J.L. Confer. 1987. The Golden-winged Warbler:competition with the Blue-winged Warbler and habitat selection in portions of southern, central, and northern New York. Kingbird 37(2):65-72.

Ehrlich, P.R., D.S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The birder's handbook:a field guide to the natural history of North American birds. Simon and Shuster, Inc., New York. xxx + 785 pp.

Mills, A. 1987. Golden-winged warbler. Page 358 in M. D. Cadman, P. F. J. Eagles, and F. M. Helleiner (editors). Atlas of the breeding birds of Ontario. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario.

Ridgely, R.S., and G. Tudor. 1989. The birds of South America. Vol. 1. The Oscine passerines. Univ. Texas Press, Austin. 516 pp.

Stiles, F.G., and A.F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Comstock Publ. Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 511 pp.

Skully, R. [In press]. A field study of the golden-winged warbler in the Pequannock watershed, Sussex County, New Jersey. Proc. Linnaean Soc.

Droege, S., and J.R. Sauer. 1990. North American Breeding Bird Survey, annual summary, 1989. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 90(8). 22 pp.

Confer, J.L. 1992. Golden-winged warbler. Pages 369-383 in K.J. Schneider and D.M. Pence, editors. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the Northeast. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, Massachusetts. 400 pp.

10 March 2005
This data was compiled and/or developed by the North Carolina GAP Analysis Project.

For more information please contact them at:
NC-GAP Analysis Project
Dept. of Zoology, NCSU
Campus Box 7617
Raleigh, NC 27695-7617
(919) 513-2853