Dickcissel
Spiza americana
 
ITIS Species Code:   179165         NatureServ Element Code:   ABPBX65010
 
Taxa: 
Order: 
Family: 
Aves
Passeriformes
Cardinalidae
NatureServe Global Rank: 
NatureServe State (NC) Rank: 
 
G5
SZB,SZN
 
Federal Status: 
NC State Status: 
 
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PARTNERS IN FLIGHT PRIORITY SCORES:
Southern Blue Ridge:  n/a Southern Piedmont:  20 South Atl. Coastal Plain:  20
 
HEXAGONAL KNOWN RANGE:PREDICTED DISTRIBUTION:
 
SUMMARY OF STATEWIDE PREDICTED DISTRIBUTION:
 
Land Unit

US Fish & Wildlife Service
US Forest Service
US National Park Service
US Department of Defense
NC State Parks
NC University System
NC Wildlife Res. Com.
NC Forest Service
NC Div. of Coastal Mgmt.
Local Governments
Non-Governmental Org.
Other Public Lands
Private Lands

GAP Status 1-2
All Protected Lands
Statewide
 
Hectares

6,684.21
1,406.43
9,411.30
76.68
1,038.33
1,211.49
4,385.61
742.86
23.49
533.34
1,432.98
2,338.92
3,400,377.48

11,380.95
28,147.41
3,429,663.12
 
Acres

16,517.04
3,475.36
23,255.82
189.48
2,565.77
2,993.66
10,837.08
1,835.65
58.05
1,317.91
3,540.97
5,779.60
8,402,514.11

28,122.93
69,553.75
8,474,880.48
% of Dist. on
Prot. Lands

23.7 %
5.0 %
33.2 %
0.3 %
3.7 %
4.3 %
13.9 %
2.6 %
< 0.1 %
4.9 %
4.9 %
6.5 %
< 0.1 %

40.4 %
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% of Dist. on
All Lands

0.2 %
< 0.1 %
0.3 %
< 0.1 %
< 0.1 %
< 0.1 %
0.1 %
< 0.1 %
< 0.1 %
< 0.1 %
< 0.1 %
< 0.1 %
99.1 %

0.3 %
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HABITAT DESCRIPTION:
A small group may have nested at the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (Dare County) in 1988 (Fussell 1994), and small colonies may also occasionally nest in the piedmont (Potter et al. 1980).

Found only in meadows and cultivated or grassy fields (Kaufman 1996).

Nest is built on the ground or placed up to 6 feet above the ground in herbaceous plants, a shrubs, or a low tree. Forages on the ground or in low vegetation, sings from high perches (Kaufman 1996)

NATURE SERVE GLOBAL HABITAT COMMENTS:

Grassland, meadows, savanna, cultivated lands, brushy fields. Often in rice-growing regions in winter (Ehrlich et al. 1992).

BREEDING: Nests on ground in grass or rank herbage, or raised a little above ground, in grass tufts or tall weeds, or in low shrubs or trees, up to about 2 m above ground but usually low (Harrison 1978). In Kansas, males commonly returned to the same breeding area in successive years (North Am. Bird Bander 14:83-85).

 
MODELING DESCRIPTION:
Occupied Landcover Map Units:
Code NameDescription NC Natural Heritage Program Equivalent
180 Agricultural Crop Fields Farm fields used for row crops. No equivalent
205 Agricultural Pasture/Hay and Natural Herbaceous Farm fields used for pasture grass or hay production, as well as old fields dominated by native and exotic grasses. No equivalent
202 Residential Urban Includes vegetation interspersed in residential areas. Includes lawns, mixed species woodlots, and horticultural shrubs. Vegetation accounts for between 20 - 70% of the cover. No equivalent
View Entire Landcover Legend
 
Additional Spatial Constraints:
Exclude all area outside of known range.
Exclude the outerbanks.
 
CITATIONS:
Tamplin, J. W., J. W. Demastes, and J. V. Remsen, Jr. 1993. Biochemical and morphometric relationships among some members of the Cardinalinae. Wilson Bull. 105:93-113.

Johnson, D.H., and L.D. Igl. 1995. Contributions of the Conservation Reserve Program to populations of breeding birds in North Dakota. Wilson Bulletin 107:709-718.

Carter, M., G. Fenwick, C. Hunter, D. Pashley, D. Petit, J. Price, and J. Trapp. 1996. Watchlist 1996:For the future. Field Notes 50(3):238-240.

Ehrlich, P.R., D.S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in jeopardy:the imperiled and extinct birds of the United States and Canada, including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.

Hagan, J.M., III, and D.W. Johnston, editors. 1992. Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. xiii + 609 pp.

Sauer, J.R., and S. Droege. 1992. Geographical patterns in population trends of neotropical migrants in North America. Pages 26-42 in J.M. Hagan III and D.W. Johnston, editors. Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds. Smithsonian Institu

Fussell, J.O. III. 1994. A birderís guide to coastal North Carolina. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press.

Kaufman K. 1996. Lives of North American Birds. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Bent, A. C. 1968. Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks, buntings, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 237.

Harrison, C. 1978. A field guide to the nests, eggs and nestlings of North American birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

Harrison, H.H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 279 pp.

Potter, E. F., J. F. Parnell, and R. P. Teulings. 1980. Birds of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 408 pp.

Terres, J.K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

Hilty, S.L., and W.L. Brown. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 836 pp.

Ridgely, R.S., and G. Tudor. 1989. The birds of South America. Vol. 1. The Oscine passerines. Univ. Texas Press, Austin. 516 pp.

Stiles, F.G., and A.F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Comstock Publ. Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 511 pp.

Droege, S., and J.R. Sauer. 1990. North American Breeding Bird Survey, annual summary, 1989. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 90(8). 22 pp.

10 March 2005
 
This data was compiled and/or developed by the North Carolina GAP Analysis Project.

For more information please contact them at:
NC-GAP Analysis Project
Dept. of Zoology, NCSU
Campus Box 7617
Raleigh, NC 27695-7617
(919) 513-2853
www.basic.ncsu.edu/ncgap